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मार्क्सवादी अब संग्रहालय की वस्तुयें


आज के न्यू इण्डियन एक्सप्रेस के सम्पादकीय पृष्ठपर माननीय परमेश्वरन जी का लेख छपा है- ‘‘मार्क्सवादी अब संग्रहालय की वस्तुयें’’। हिन्दी पाठकों की सुविधा के लिये लेख के मुख्य बिन्दू प्रस्तुत है। पूरे लेख की कड़ी भी अंत में दी गई है।
वर्तमान में चर्चित पद्मनाभस्वामी मंदिर की सम्पत्ती के विवाद की पृष्ठभूमि में यह लेख लिखा गया है। केरल के अनेक माक्र्सवादी व अन्य साम्यवादी नेता इस प्रकार की मांग कर रहे है कि पद्मनाभस्वामी को अर्पित दुर्लभ वस्तुओं को एक संग्रहालय के रूप में संरक्षित किया जाये। उपर से अत्यन्त पूरोगामी लगनेवाली इस मांग के पीछे का रहस्य इस लेख में स्पष्ट किया है। वैसे मार्क्स के विचार में धर्म का कोई स्थान नहीं है और भारतीय साम्यवादी नेता भी इसे अन्धविश्वास के रुप में ही प्रचारित करते है। उनके धर्मभिरु समर्थक भले ही इससे सहमत ना हो।
लेख में इतिहास के अनेक साक्ष्य प्रस्तुत किये गये है। किस प्रकार 1917 की बोल्शेविक क्रांति तथा चीन में तिब्बत पर कब्जे तथा मुख्य भूमि में  सांस्कृतिक क्रांति के समय अनेक धार्मिक उपासनास्थलों की सम्पत्ति को संग्रहालय बना दिया गया। और फिर वहां  से वो अमूल्य धरोहर गायब की गई। इस लूट के अनेक उदाहरण हैं। 2010 में छपी एक रिपोर्ट के अनुसार रुस के सर्गेइ पोसाद में स्थित ‘‘होली ट्रीनीटी मठ’’ योरोप का सबसे बड़ा व सबसे धनी उपासना स्थल था। इसे संग्रहालय बना दिया। सेण्ट पीटर्सबर्ग का एक अन्य मठ भी संग्रहालय बना दिया गया और फिर अमूल्य सम्पत्ति चोरी हो गई। आज मार्क्सवाद तो समाप्त हो गया और रशिया में परम्परागत इसाइयत पुनः पनप रही है। द्वितीय महायुद्ध में नाझी जर्मनी से हार की कगार पर खड़े सोवियत रुस को प्रेरणा के लिये मार्क्स या लेनिन की शिक्षा काम नहीं आई तब उन्हें धर्म जिसे वे अफिम मानते थे का आश्रय लेना पड़ा। परम्परागत चर्च की सहायता से लोग उठ खड़े हुए और रशिया हिटलर को परास्त कर सका। 1945 में स्टालीन ने पोसाद का मठ चर्च को लौटा दिया। तब तक बहुत सी अनमोल धरोहर लुट चुकी थी।
चीन की कहानी तो और भी भयंकर है 1959 में 6000 से अधिक बौद्ध स्थलों को नष्ट कर दिया गया। प्रचूर सम्पत्ति को संग्रहालयों में संरक्षित करने के नाम पर लूटा गया। फिर अपनी ही बुद्धिस्ट सोसायटि बनाकर माओ के अनुसार बौद्ध धर्म को परिभाषित कर प्रचार किया गया। जब 1982-83 में तिब्बति प्रतिनिधि अपनी अमूल्य कलाकृतियों को लेने चीन गए तो पता चला की सोने चांदी जैसे सारे मूल्यवान धातुओं की मूर्तियों को बेच दिया गया था। कासे, तांबे और पितल को धातु उद्योगों में गला दिया गया।
मार्क्सवादियों का ये तरिका है। पुरातत्व उनके लिये इतिहास को अपने हिसाब से मरोड़ने के साथ ही अनमोल धरोहर को लूटने का माध्यम रहा है। यह सारे विश्व में हुआ है। पर आज सब जगह से इनका अस्तीत्व ही समाप्त् हो रहा है। रशिया में परम्परगत चर्च फिर जोरों पर है। चीन में भी कन्फूशियन और बुद्ध का पुनर्जागरण हो रहा है। भारत में ये साम्यवादी नेता अब मात्र संग्रहालयों के प्रदर्श ही रह गये है।

http://expressbuzz.com/opinion/op-ed/marxists-as-museum-pieces/299140.html

Marxists as museum pieces

High profile Marxist academicians of Kerala have been taking very keen interest in the sensitive issue of the new findings in the Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple. Most of the party leaders have been prudently reticent, obviously for fear of public anger. What the intellectual giants want is to keep all the valuable articles found in the temple vaults in a state museum, for public exhibition. There is nothing unexpected about this, because for them religion, temple and spirituality are all meaningless and dangerous superstitions. Of course the large followers of the party are not with them in this anti-religious attitude. But the intellectuals are a different class. They hardly communicate with the masses, as they still live in an ivory tower of irrelevant theories and obsolete ideologies.

This is neither a new phenomenon nor something peculiar to Kerala or Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple. This is inherent in the communist psyche all over the world. They have put in practice this ideology which prescribes places of worship and religious and devotional items to be exhibited as artefacts in museums. This has happened in the Soviet Union and communist China (both in the mainland and in Tibet). But, in the twists and turns of history in the communist countries the entire process has been since reversed and instead of sacred places turning into museums the party itself has become a big museum, while temples and churches have emerged more powerful than ever.

Herbert Genzmer in his catalogue of world famous holy places published in 2010 considers the monastery of the Holy Trinity at Sergiyev Posad as not only one of the biggest and wealthiest monastic enclaves in Europe but as also the spiritual apex of Russian Orthodox Christianity. After the 1917 October Revolution the communist regime declared that the treasures of the monastery had to be preserved. The monastery was converted into a museum. During the World War II, Russia was threatened by Nazi Germany and communism was immune and incapable to arouse the national consciousness. The Orthodox Church proved to be a catalyst for linking the Tsarist legacy of Russia with Orthodox Christianity for awakening the nation. In 1945 Joseph Stalin returned the monastery to the church and in April 16 1946 service was conducted in the cathedral. But much of its treasures was lost.

This was not an isolated incident of communist regimes annexing wealthy institutions using state machinery and transforming them into museums. The Alexander Nevsky monastery at St Petersburg was famous for its treasures. The communist government demanded that the treasures have to be preserved in a museum. The monastery was transformed into a museum, government office and storeroom. Huge shares of its priceless antiquities were looted according to Richard Cavendish in his UNESCO report on World Heritage Sites published in 2008. After the fall of the communist government in Russia all these monasteries have been declared heritage sites by the UNESCO. But the question is who shall replace the looted treasures from these sites placed in museums in the name of preservation?

On a descriptive study on Buddhism published by the Oxford University in 2003, Damien Keown describes that the cultural revolution of communist China proved a catastrophe for Buddhism. The Red Guards destroyed Buddhist temples and looted enormous treasures. The Chinese Buddhist Association was founded by the People’s Republic of China on 1953, which promoted a revisionist interpretation of Buddhism according to Marxism Leninism, insisted the monks to be loyal to the communist party. According to a study by John Powers in 2006, in 1959, 6,000 Buddhist monasteries were destroyed in Tibet by communist China and enormous treasures were robbed under the pretext of keeping them in museums. The treasures of the famous Sakya and Lithang monasteries were looted and then bombed. Numerous historic documents on Buddhism were destroyed.

When a team of Tibetans visited China in 1982-83 to retrieve Tibetan artefacts a Chinese official told them in Beijing that most of the statues were destroyed and those of pure gold and silver were taken away. Those of gilded copper, bell metal, red copper brass were ferried to Luyun from where they were eventually sold to foundries in Shanghai, Sichuan, Tai Yun, Beijing and Tianjin. The foundry called Xi-you Qing-shu (precious metal foundry) situated five kilometres to the east of Beijing, alone purchased 600 tons of Tibetan crafted metals. The team found that almost all artefacts taken by other foundries had already been melted down. Religious texts were burnt and mixed with field manure and sacred Mani stones were used for making toilets and pavements. (1996 Official Report of Central Tibetan Administration)

The Marxist ideologues and historians have kept an eye on artistically rich and wealthy institutions as a worksite for ideological digging. The setting up of museums was politically motivated to interpret the preserved antiquities in accordance with Marxism Leninism rather than their archaeological and historical context. Vladimir Radyuhin, has pointed out that Russia is witnessing the revival of the Orthodox Church and its gradual establishment as state religion. Radyuhin perceives that the Kremlin promotes the Orthodox Church in order to fill the ideological vacuum that the collapse of communism has created. The steady growth of the church can be comprehended from how the mayor of the Moscow was compelled to withdraw the land offered to ISKON fair construction of a temple following protest from the church. Indeed the government has helped to build new and restore thousands of churches including the cathedral of Christ the Savior near Kremlin, the largest Orthodox Church in the world. As observed by Radyuhin the cathedral stands as a symbol of orthodoxy replacing Marxism Leninism.

President Medvedev has emerged as an ardent supporter of the church and was instrumental in giving orthodox theological schools the same status as secular universities. Following the approval in December of a controversial law to restore religious organisations property and assets seized by the communist regime, museums and archives have been compelled to vacate church premises and surrender religious artefacts.

Indian communism, which once held promises of being the alternative to the Congress — remember the slogan ‘After Nehru, Namboodiripad’ — now shows signs of taking the Soviet and east European route to dissolution and disappearance except as skeletons in the museum of history.

P Parameswaran is director, Bharatheeya Vichara Kendram

जुलाई 30, 2011 - Posted by | सामायिक टिपण्णी

2 टिप्पणियाँ »

  1. I can’t open the link. If you have soft copy please help.

    टिप्पणी द्वारा divyeshrm | अगस्त 17, 2012 | प्रतिक्रिया


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